Jl. Pahlawan Revolusi, No.22B, Pondok Bambu, Jakarta Timur-13430 (021) 86604409 / 081310045708

Pondasi Tiang Pancang: Karakteristik, Jenis, Kelebihan dan Kekurangannya

Pondasi tiang pancang dalam bahasa Inggris dikenal dengan Pile Foundation. Merupakan bagian dari struktur konstruksi yang berfungsi mentransfer dan menerima beban dari atas ke tanah. Pondasi ini ditempatkan pada kedalaman tertentu. Inilah penjelasan lengkap mengenai pondasi tiang pancang tersebut. 

Karakteristik Pondasi Tiang Pancang


Bentuk dari pondasi tiang pancang adalah ramping dan penjang guna menyalurkan beban ke tanah paling dalam. Tiang pancang terbuat dari beberapa bahan utama seperti baja, kayu dan beton. Proses pemasangannya dengan dibor ke dalam tanah kemudian dihubungkan dengan poer.

Saat ini, pondasi tiang pancang semakin digemari dan diterapkan pada konstruksi. Tidak hanya di kawasan perkotaan saja, di desa-desa seperti dekat danau dan sungai juga kerap menerapkan sistem ini. Dengan penerapan yang tepat, pondasi tersebut akan menunjang tanah sehingga tidak mudah longsor.

Secara khusus, pondasi tiang pancang ini akan diterapkan pada lahan yang jenis tanahnya kurang bagus. Tujuannya agar beban pondasi dapat tersalurkan ke tanah keras. Selain itu, juga agar dapat menahan beban lateral, vertikal hingga uplift. Jenis struktur ini sangat cocok untuk pekerjaan di atas air, misalnya dermaga atau jetty.

Material Pondasi Tiang Pancang

Tanah lembek, tanag berawa dan tanah dengan kandungan air tinggi adalah tempat-tempat yang umumnya memerlukan pondasi tiang pancang. Bahan atau material untuk membuat struktur ini cukup beragam, berikut beberapa di antaranya:

1.    Tiang Pancang Kayu

Material pertama yang umum digunakan untuk membuat pondasi tiang pancang adalah kayu. Pondasi dari bahan ini umum diterapkan pada rumah panggung di kawasan Sumatera, Kalimantan, Nusa Tenggara serta rumah di sekitar tepi pantai.

Proses pemasangan dilakukan dengan metode pukulan ke tanah. Sebelumnya, harus melalui proses membuat lubang yang diisi dengan batu dan pasir.

2.    Tiang Pancang Beton

Material kedua adalah pondasi tiang pancang beton. Jenis ini umumnya diterapkan pada bangunan-bangunan tinggi yang rentan roboh. Penerapan pondasi ini dilakukan dengan beberapa tahap. Mulai dari melakukan tes kedalaman tanah dan klasifikasi riang, pengeboran tanah hingga pemancangan pondasi.

Tiang pancang beton ada yang berupa tiang pancang sistem fabrikasi dan ada yang berupa tiang pancang cor. Setiap jenisnya memiliki teknik berbeda.

3.    Tiang Pancang Baja

Jenis ketiga adalah pondasi tiang pancang dari bahan baja. Seperti namanya, pondasi ini terbuat dari bahan baja yang melalui tahapan tertentu sehingga menyebabkan bangunan di atasnya semakin berdiri kokoh.

Masing-masing jenis pondasi memiliki perhitungan dan penerapan yang berbeda. Terlebih untuk gedung bertingkat yang membutuhkan pondasi berkekuatan lebih.

Kelebihan dan Kekurangan Pondasi Tiang Pancang

Pondasi tiang pancang memiliki model dan desain yang beragam. Untuk kebutuhan konstruksi, struktur ini menawarkan kesan yang kekinian dan modern. Pondasi tersebut sangat tepat untuk menjaga kekuatan konstruksi yang tahan terhadap apapun.

Proses desain akan semakin maksimal dan mudah dengan memanfaatkan adanya pondasi tiang pancang tersebut. Selain itu, tingkat akurasi dan juga validitasnya juga lebih tinggi dan terjamin.

Meski terdapat berbagai kelebihan, pondasi tiang pancang ternyata juga memunculkan kesulitan tersendiri. Hal ini disebabkan karena alat yang masih terbatas untuk memantau kedalaman tanah. Sehingga, kontraktor sering mengalami hambatan.

Meski demikian, pondasi tiang pancang sangat tepat untuk menahan beban vertikal. Struktur ini juga memiliki pengaruh besar dalam menahan getaran gempa sehingga konstruksi bangunan lebih aman.

Demikian ulasan lengkap mengenai pondasi tiang pancang yang cocok untuk dijadikan konstruksi di era saat ini.


Jl. Pahlawan Revolusi No.22b, Pondok Bambu Jakarta Timur – 13430
T. 021 – 861 3346, 8660 4409, 8660 4413
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